a. Anomalous redshifts


Since 1995, the observations of the spatial telescope Hubble have increased our cosmological knowledge. On the other side, Hubble do not sit right with the dominant cosmological model. This telescope, and other observations, are compromising the "linear rule" ( v = HD ), of E. Hubble, dated 1929. It is critical for the standard expansionist cosmology.

A new static model is nowadays more than a necessity. A model as the RMM theory. This theory masterfully resolves all the observational problems that the expansionist cosmology can't explain.

Since 1988, thanks to papers and two bools (one published in 1993 for a large audience, and the other in 2001 for scholars), I ring the bell about the unavoidable collapse of the "expansionist Universe". Today I think we are at the door of a change of paradigm.

The first triomph of the RMM has been in 2000 when the FRW cosmological model was rejected for the NMS, New Standard Model (with L, cosmological constant, different from 0) - expansionist itself but with a faster expansion. The formal language of the RMM theory previews also the disparition of the NMS ! Observations begin to destabilise it ! (cf csmologist Alain Blanchard, Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 412, 2003, p.137 (letter) ). For the RMM theory, the disparition of the NMS would be a second triomph !

Agrandir l'image

NGC 7603 - Arp 92 | Details

"This galaxy (...) is very pecular because it has only one arm. What is also remarquable is that in this single arm we see 3 objects with differents z. About this observation, M. Cosentino quotes a commentary published in the periodical La Recherche (n°358 November 2002) : 'The difficulty thickens today with the discovery in the brigde of two structures in which recession velocity are also anomalous. Strange. The velocity distance of a galaxy would not be bounded to its distance - what would compromise the fondation of the Big bang theory." Several arguments plaid for a true connection (at least between the principal galaxy and the companion galaxy, via a material filament. The principal galaxy is a Seyfert galaxy that is desintegrating, and that has an active nucleus. But there is nothing around to explain this perturbation, except now 3 objects situated in the same side. With only one arm inside, this galaxy is unique of its kind." - Science Revue, hors série n°11, juillet 2003, pp.86-87

cf. art. of P. Jamet, Fusion n°93 (nov./dec. 2002) & Anomalous Redshift Companion Galaxies : NGC 7603 (The Astrophysical Journal, 302: 245-256, 1986 March )


Agrandir l'image

NGC 1232 - Arp 41

"Without considering the position of the galaxy A, how the little galaxy B can be observed throught the disk of the main spiral galaxy NGC 1232 (z=0,005), very absorbing ? Would it be closer, in spite of a important spectral shift z = 0,093 ." Science Revue, hors série n°11, juillet 2003, p.87

NGC 4319 - MK205 (Crédit NASA / STScI /AURA) | Cette photo réhaussée

The more famous case is the close couple NGC 4319 and the quasar MK 205 (respectively z=0,0045 and z=0,070." Long ago we were waiting for an observation of this couple by the spatial telescope Hubble. It is now done ! Verdict ? According to the photogrophy of October 2002, the 3rd (...) the material filament linking this two objects doesn't exist. But Arp accuses the STScI (Space Telescope Science Institute), in the review Science n'°5592 10/11/2002, "deliberately misleading the public". The University of Alabama has producted a rehaussed picture of this same photography of Hubble, where the bridge can be clearly seen ! In fact, all is a matter of luminosity and contrast." Science Revue, hors série n°11, juillet 2003, p.88

NGC 3067 - Quasar 3C232

The NGC 3067 galaxy and the quasar 3C232 are also a physically linked couple. They have been observed optically by the Kitt Peak observatory, and also in 21cm radio by the VLA. How this physical link is possible, since the galaxy would be situated at 95 millions light-year and the quasar at 9 billions light-year (if their spectral shift are interpreted according the actual theory)." Science Revue, hors série n°11, juillet 2003, p.88

ABEL 1367

"In the ABEL 1367 cluster is situated a galaxy surrounded of three quasars in a inferior distance to 2' ark (ie 1/1000 of the Moon diameter). An attempt to expunge this discovery has been made, precise M. Cosentino. When the paper relating this observation was proposed to the Astrophysical Journal, the publication was delayed of about one year and half. We now know, on the basis of observations, that more a galaxy is distant from us, so with a big z, more the distance of the angular separation of the quasar is little." Science Revue, hors série n°11, juillet 2003, pp.87-88


We have only quoted serveral examples. There are others. Would not only one, or two, of this examples suffice to definitely incriminated the Doppler interpretation of the redshift ? And with this incrimination, all the expansionist model based on it ?


b. The problem of the age of the Universe : a big bet



Credit : without notice, kind autorisation of Halton Arp